Justificación

La proporción de personas mayores de 60 años está aumentando más rápidamente que cualquier otro grupo de edad.
Constituye un éxito de las políticas de salud pública y sociales, pero también un reto.
Objetivo: envejecimiento óptimo y saludable.
A mayor edad, mayor probabilidad de padecer patologías.

Nos basamos en los tratamientos no farmacológicos.
Mejoran la capacidad plástica del cerebro (neuroplasticidad)
Límites: la plasticidad será nula en personas con un elevado deterioro cognitivo.
Resultados: Aumentar la plasticidad neuronal y la resistencia a la muerte celular.

Identificación de tareas

El diseño, la metodología y la definición de la plataforma comienza con un proceso de identificación de tareas empleadas en distintos programas de entrenamiento sobre las que existe una eficacia demostrada de manera empírica.

Se realiza por tanto una revisión de estas tareas, que tiene por objeto determinar qué actividades se incluyen en este tipo de programas y especificar las evidencias científicas de su efectividad.

Para el análisis de las tareas incluidas en estudios publicados, se seleccionaron una serie de metanálisis y trabajos de revisión publicados a partir de 2008. Se consideraron prioritariamente aquellas revisiones sobre deterioro cognitivo leve. Además, se incluyeron dos revisiones (Kuider et al., 2012 y Papp et al, 2009) con mayores sanos.

Análisis

Tras una primera búsqueda se obtuvo un listado de 110 estudios que aparecían en los trabajos anteriores. De estos finalmente accedió a 70 que se analizaron atendiendo a los siguientes aspectos:

  1. Participantes. Número y estatus (con salud, con deterioro cognitivo, etc). Asignación a grupos.
  2. Tipo de entrenamiento: computerizado, enseñanza de estrategias, basado en consejos de salud, basado en ejercicio físico, psicológicos (p.e., emocionales), videojuegos. Como puede apreciarse en la gráfica algo más de la mitad (35) incluían algún grupo en el que administraron tareas por ordenador o similar.
  3. Naturaleza y tipo de entrenamiento: duración, contenidos, ejercicios…
  4. Tipo de medidas incluidas: inmediatas, a medio o largo plazo, de generalización.
  5. Tipo de efectos obtenidos: a) efectos inmediatos (tras el entrenamiento), b) efectos a medio/largo plazo, c) efectos de transferencia (p.e., a habilidades no entrenadas), d) efecto en la valoración subjetiva, y e) efecto a nivel emocional.
Grafico-tipos-de-entrenamiento1

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